SATELLITE VIRUSES

INTRODUCTION They are subviral pathogens / agents. Their replication machinery depends upon their helper virus. They can be seen in animals, protists and plants. Plant satellite viruses can be classified …

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Antisepsis and its requirements

Antisepsis is a complex of preventive measures, which allows suppressing microbial growth and dissemination upon intact or injured skin, mucosal tissues, wounds, and within the body’s compartments. The main group …

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Sterilization: Physical and Chemical methods

Sterilization: Physical and Chemical methods

Sterilization: Physical and Chemical methods Sterilization, disinfection, antisepsis, asepsis, and chemotherapy refer to antimicrobial measures, which cause direct damage to infectious agents. Sterilization is a complex of physical and chemical …

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Morphology of Spirochetes

Morphology of Spirochetes Spirochetes (Lat. Spira – curve, Gk. chaite – mane) demonstrate the structure, distinct from other bacteria. They make spiral cellular forms with a corkscrew shape. Their sizes …

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Spores and Sporulation

Endospores are oval or round-shaped bodies of small sizes formed inside microbial cells. The spores are produced in the course of microbial propagation at certain environmental conditions. Unlike in fungi, …

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History of Microbiology

History of Microbiology  The microscope Zacharias Janssen In 1590, Zacharias Janssen developed the first compound microscope in Middleburg, Holland, Janssen’s microscope consisted of three tubes. One tube served as the …

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