Quantitative and qualitative disturbances of normal microflora of human body that follow infectious and somatic diseases, long-term and indiscriminate use of antibiotics result in dysbiosis (or dysbacteriosis).
Many factors may lead to dysbiosis. Of main medical importance is long antibiotic and antiseptic treatment especially with drugs of wide spectrum of action administered in improper doses. Among other causes are chronic somatic and infectious diseases, cancer, immune suppression, irradiation, stress etc.
This state is characterized by profound disorder in digestion products assimilation, impairment of enzyme activity, physiological secretion cleavage, etc. The territorial deviations of microflora cause a whole series of complications: intestinal dyspepsia, secondary immune deficiency, toxic infections, suppurative processes, inflammation of the respiratory tract, various forms of candidiasis, etc. In dysbiosis the number of lactobacteria declines, the number of anaerobes arises; fungi, resistant to conventional antibacterial treatment, begin to grow actively.
Current researches try to establish dysbiosis associations with obesity, colitis, various forms of cancer, bacterial vaginosis, inflammatory bowel disease or chronic fatigue syndrome.
The treatment of dysbiosis includes cancellation of antibiotics usage, and administration of special diet, vitamins or immunomodulatory drugs. Most effective is treatment with probiotics. These biological products contain live bacteria of symbiotic intestinal microflora that possess antagonistic activity against pathogenic microbial agents.
Colibacterin as a biological product contains living E. coli from strain M17 that produce bacteriocins (colicins) against shigellae, salmonellas, enteropathogenic colibacteria, etc.
Bifidumbacterin is composed of live bifidobacteria of the same features.
Bificol is a complex probiotic product of E. coli and bifidobacteria.
Bactisporin contains the spores of Bacillus subtilis; it develops antimicrobial and favorable enzyme action for food digestion.
Some other broadly used probiotics may contain the strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or the yeasts Saccharomyces boulardii. Nevertheless, if to take into account the numerous entangled relationships within microbial biota of human body, it becomes obvious that not every disturbance in normal microbial population must be treated, and the microbial balance may be rehabilitated due to its natural processes.