How Innate and Adaptive Immunity is Related?

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How Innate and Adaptive Immunity is Related?

  • When a pathogen enters the body it tries to hide from the immune cell which makes an unhealthy cell
  • So various cells of the innate arm like the natural killer cells, macrophages, Langerhans, Dendritic cell gets activated in the cell
  • There are certain adaptive cells which are in inactivated or naïve state, they work along the innate arm of the immune system like a cytotoxic cell or naïve cell (T◦)
  • Some of them are APC that is they display an antigen on their surface with MHC II complex

Suppose an antigen enters or it is caught by an antigen-presenting cell (APCs) like macrophage. Macrophage catch the antigen and destroys it then it represents the part of antigen on its surface and at the same time it moves toward lymph nodes to represent this antigen to other immune cells which helps in forming memory cells

  • In adaptive arm, we have T◦ or naïve cells (unknown function) which have receptors and once the T cell is stimulated by a chemical they are activated. It depends on what type of chemicals stimulate cell
  • At the same time macrophage release interleukin 12 (IL-12) via blood, that reaches to the T◦ cell which in turns activate the T1 cell that leads to the release of Gamma interferon(¥) which ultimately activates macrophages to kill more pathogens
  • Macrophages act as a bridge between the innate and acquired arm
  • Also at the same time, T1 releases IL-2 which activates cytotoxic T cells to kill unhealthy cells (pathogen)
  • All normal nucleated cell have MHC 1 on the surface in a large number but in healthy cells, they do not have the same amount of MHC 1 on the surface and this is detected by Tc or cytotoxic cells and pathogens are destroyed
  • In the innate arm, there is an unknown cell which releases IL-4
  • T◦ cell posses receptor for IL-4 and IL-12. In case T◦ cell is activated by IL-4 it changes into T2 cell
  • T2 cell inturns release IL-4 and IL-5 which stimulate B cell to produce more antibodies

Innate arm of immune system activates adaptive arm and in turn, adaptive arm activates innate arm