Industrial microbial product
- Microorganism under natural condition produce an extremely large number as well as a very large variety of chemical substances.
- Some of the substances are very useful for the treatment of diseases and disorder of people and other animal and hence are attractive to the pharmaceuticals industry, other are valuable as raw material for the chemical industry for the precaution for the other product solvents and for other uses.
- Lactic acid bacteria like lactobacillus are added to milk.
- lactic acid causes coagulation and partial digestion of milk protein casein.
- Milk is changed into curd, yoghurt and cheese.
- Selected strains of a Baker’s yeast saccharomyces services are grown on lasses.
- When sufficient growth has occurred Baker’s yeast is harvested and converted into either powderature for a few hours.
- Its swells of the phenomenon is called leavening.
- leavening is caused by secretion of three types of enzyme by yeast.
- Amylase cause breakdown of a small quantity of starch into maltose sugar.
- Maltose convert maltose into glucose.
- Zymase is a complex of several enzyme of anaerobic respiration which brings about fermentation.
Single cell protein:-
- production of microbial biomass as supplementary food for humans and animals.
- The common single cell protein are spirulina ,yeast and fusarium processing is required.
- Single cell protein is rich in high quality protein ,vitamins and minerals but poor in fat.
- Beside providing much-needed protein single cell protein is useful in reducing environmental pollution as it is often Grover medium having organic waste from agriculture and industries.
- enzymes like amylase, protease are useful •Amylase hydrolase starch to dextrin and sugar which is used in preparing size and adhesive clarifying fruit juice manufacturing pharmaceutical and for other purpose.
- Inverter is hydrolysis of sucrose to form glucose and fructose.
- widely used for candy making and production of syrup from sucrose .
- which is partially hydrolysed by this enzyme.
- Protease which is a mixture of proteolytic enzyme are used for leather processing manufacture of liquid glue and clarification of fruit juice and to hydrolysed pectin in the setting of flask for the manufacture of lenen.
- Vitamins are organic compound that are necessary in small amount in animal and human diet to sustain life and health.
- The vitamins are named by letter vitamin a vitamin C, D ,E, K and the group of b vitamin.
- The vitamins can be derived from the plant or animal product or produce synthetically in a laboratory.
- Vitamins A for example can be derived from fish liver oil and vitamin C from citrus fruit or Rose leaves.
- The term was coined by wesman.
- Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by some microbes which is small concentration can kill or retaral the growth of harmful microbes without adversely affecting the host.
- Penicillin was the first antibiotic to be discovered by Alexander Fleming.
- He found that fungus penicillium or extract could inhibit the growth of bacteria staphylococcus.
Some industrial products other than antibiotics:-
Lactic Acid production:-
- Several carbohydrate substance such as corn and potato ,starch why they can be used for the production of lactic acid.
- Starch must first be hydrolysed to glucose by acid or enzymatic treatment.
- The choice of carbohydrate material depends upon its availability treatment required prior to fomentation and cost.
- Production of lactic acid from whey.
- large quantities of whey constitutes a waste product in the manufacture of certain dairy products such as cheese.
- The first requirement for the development of a method of producing lactic acid is an organism capable of growing is whey and formatting most if not all the lactose to lactic acid.
- Lactobacillus are suitable for this purpose.
- Derivatives of lactic acid are used in the treatment of as a solvent in liquid and a plastic scissor .
- Alcohol is the most common solvent and raw material used in the laboratory and chemical industry.
- The microbiological aspect of the process of ethanol alcohol production can be summarised as follows:-
- Ethanol alcohol can be produced from any fermentable carbohydrate by yeast.
- When starch such as colon and other complex carbohydrate are used as the raw material it is first necessary to hydrolyse them to simple fermentable sugars.
- Corn, sugar, potatoes and grapes are some of the common raw material employed throughout the world.
- Selected strains of S.cervisiae are commonly employed for the fermentation.
- It is imperative that the culture be one of that grows vigorously and has a high tolerance for alcohol as well as a capacity for producing a large yield of alcohol.
- Much attention has been directed towards the selection and development of strains .
- Penicillin in was the first antibiotic to produce industrially.
- The mould isolated by flaming and as grown in his laboratory building only a few units of penicillin per ml and small amount of when one considers that a patient made required treatment with millions of units.
- The development contributing to this enormous increase in yield were as follows:-
- Improvement in composition of the medium.
- development of the submerged culture technique cultivation of the mould in large volume of liquid medium through sterile air is forced.
- The production of mutant strains which were capable of producing large amount of penicillin.
- A series of mutants produce by x-ray and UV radiation result in students with remarkable capacity for synthesis of penicillin.
- The addition of chemical to the medium which served as precaution for synthesis of penicillin.
- Damage your step in the commercial production of penicillin are:-
- preparation of inoculum
- preparation and sterilization of medium
- inoculation of medium in the fermenter
- forced aeration with sterile air during intubation
- removed of the mould mycelium after fermentation
- extraction and purification of the penicillin
- Citric acid is an important chemica.
- It used in medicine flavouring extract food and the manufacture of ink, dyeing and engraving.
- Several different spaces of moles have the ability to convert sugar to citric acid but a niger is most widely used for its commercial production.
- The carbohydrate is incorporated into a medium containing an inorganic nitrogen compound as well as inorganic salt.
- The manufacture of paper involves to measure operations.
- The first consists of physical or chemical treatment of cellulosic material for the purpose of separating and purifying the cellulose fibre.
- The second consists of fabrication of the resulting fibrous polyp after further refinement for the position of the fibre in the form of sheet.
- It is usually produced as a druid dried material by collecting the latex from the fruit of the papaya tree.
- It breaks down through meat fibres and has been used for thousands of years to tenderize meat eaten in its native South America.
- It can be used to dissociated cells in the first step of cell culture preparation.
- It is also used an ingredient in various enzyme delaleriding preparation notably.
- A variety of alkaloids have been used for pharmaceuticals and number and most of them are plant metabolites.
- A vaccine is a biological product which provide acquired immunity to a particular disease.
- A vaccine typically contain an agent that resemble a disease.
- which causing microorganism and is often made from weekend or kill forms of the microbe, is toxin or one of its surface protein.
- The influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine where is cultured mammalian cells are expected to become in increasingly important compared to constitutional option such as chicken legs due to greater productivity and low incidence of problem with contamination.
High value therapeutics:-
- Biopharmaceutical also known as biological medial product.
- Different from chemically synthesized pharmaceuticals they include vaccine ,blood, blood components.
- There isolated from natural source like human ,animal or microorganism.
- Ex- Factor viii, interferons
- Biologically active enzyme may be extracted from any living organism.
- A undredide range of source are used for commercial enzyme production from spinach to snake Venous.
- Lipase which is obtain from pancreas and are used in food industry.
- The hormones obtained from animal source that useful for various industrial products.
- Insulin obtained from hog pancreas are used by millions of diabetes daily and alternatively these are synthesis vegetative diet and nutritional supplement .
- Eestrogen are the female hormone obtained from pregnant urine which are considered as drug used for reproductive problem and in birth control pills and premarin drug.
- Albumin in muscles, blood are used in cosmetics albumin is usually derived from egg whites and used as a coagulant eating agent which may cause allergic reaction.