Kingdom Eukarya


  • The key genera are chlamydomonas, euglena.
  • Algae contain chlorophyll and carry out oxygenic photosynthesis.
  • Algae are not cyanobacteria.
  • Most algae are microscopic in size but same are microscopic over 30 metres in length.

Types of algae:-

  • Algae are either unicellular or colonial and rockers as aggregate of cells.
  • When the cells are arrange end to end the algae is said as to be filamentous.
  • Algae contain chlorophyll and are green in colour.
  • Of you kind of algae are not green but are brown or red due to other pigment such as xanthophylls.
  • Algal cell contain one or more chloroplast.
  • red algae have chloroplast that contain phycobili protein the measure light harvesting pigment.

Pigment and metabolism:-

  • Dinoflagellates are flagellated marine algae.
  • All algae carry out oxygen evolving photosynthesis using H2O and as an electron donor.
  • 50ml algal carry out photosynthesis without making O2 and using H2 as an electron donor.
  • Many algae are obligate phototrophs and unable to grow in darkness on organic carbon compound.
  • Some spaces can grow chemoorganotropically and use simple sugar or organic acid in the dark.

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Cell wall of algae:-

The cell wall is composed of network of cellulose fibrils and polysaccharides such as pectins,  xylene, alginic acid .

  • In somealgal the wall is made by calcium carbonate and these forms are called coralline algae.
  • In diatoms the cell wall is composed of silica to which protein and polysaccharide are added.


  • Most algae are motile because of flagella.
  • cilia do not occur in algae.
  • Simple flagellate forms searches euglena have a single polar flagellum.
  • Dinoflagellate have to two Flagella of different lengths.
  • Algae are found in aquatic habitats both freshwater and marine.


  • Cell wall and metabolism:-Thee key genera are penicillium ,spergillus saccharomyces.
  • Fungi contain cell wall and produce spores.
  • Three major group of fungi are recognised:-
  • Molds, yeast and mushroom
  • Few fungi are parasitic on animal including human.
  • Fungal cell wall are similar to plant cell wall structurally but not chemically.
  • Cellulose is present in the walls of some fungi.
  • Many fungi have non cellulosic walls.
  • Chitin is a polymer of glucose derivatives.
  • Fungal cell wall are generally 80 to 90% polysaccharide with protein ,lipid, polyphosphate and inorganic ions.
  • Fungal cell wall is used to classify fungi.
  • all fungi chememorganotroph and have simple nutritional requirement.

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  • Mould are filamentous fungi.
  • Commonly seen as bread cheese or fruit.
  • A single filament is called a Haifa and collectively called mycelium.
  • The fungal mycelium hyphal branches main grow up into the air above the surface and on this aerial branches sports are called conidia.

2. Mushrooms:-

  • Mushroom filamentous basidiomycetes that form large fruiting bodies.
  • Mushroom line as sporophyte in the soil on the trunks of the trees.

3. Slime moulds:-

  • The let genera are dictyostelum physarum.
  • slime mould have phenotyping similarity to both fungi and protozoa.
  • They have motile and can move across a solid surface rapidly.
  • Slime mould can be divided into two groups what is the cellular slime moulds and another one is acellular slime moulds.


  • Mastigophora:-The keys genera of protozoa are amoeba paramecium.
  • Protozoa unicellular eukaryotic microorganism that lack cell walls.
  • They are generally colourless and motile.
  • Protozoa different from prokaryotes by eukaryotic nature from algae by the lake of chlorophyll from east and other fungi by their motility and absorbents of a cell wall and from slime mould by their lake of fruiting body formation.
  • Protozoa obtain food by ingesting other organism or organic particles.
  • Most protozoa are able to ingest particulate material by phagocytosis.
  • Some protozoa can swallow particulate matter by operation of a special structure called a gullet or mouth.
  • The flagellates they are motile by the action of flagella.
  • This organism cause a number of serious disease in human and vertebrate animal.

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  • Sarcodines are organisms such as amoeba.
  • They are always naked in the vegetative phase.
  • Amoeba are parasites of human and other vertebrates.
  • The move in these habitats by amoeboid movement.

2. Ciliophora:-

  • In some stage of this organism life cycle poses cilia.
  • Ciliates have two fund of nuclei one is micronucleus and another one is macronucleus.
  • The commonly known ciliates are genus paramecium.