- The key genera are chlamydomonas, euglena.
- Algae contain chlorophyll and carry out oxygenic photosynthesis.
- Algae are not cyanobacteria.
- Most algae are microscopic in size but same are microscopic over 30 metres in length.
Types of algae:-
- Algae are either unicellular or colonial and rockers as aggregate of cells.
- When the cells are arrange end to end the algae is said as to be filamentous.
- Algae contain chlorophyll and are green in colour.
- Of you kind of algae are not green but are brown or red due to other pigment such as xanthophylls.
- Algal cell contain one or more chloroplast.
- red algae have chloroplast that contain phycobili protein the measure light harvesting pigment.
Pigment and metabolism:-
- Dinoflagellates are flagellated marine algae.
- All algae carry out oxygen evolving photosynthesis using H2O and as an electron donor.
- 50ml algal carry out photosynthesis without making O2 and using H2 as an electron donor.
- Many algae are obligate phototrophs and unable to grow in darkness on organic carbon compound.
- Some spaces can grow chemoorganotropically and use simple sugar or organic acid in the dark.
Cell wall of algae:-
The cell wall is composed of network of cellulose fibrils and polysaccharides such as pectins, xylene, alginic acid .
- In somealgal the wall is made by calcium carbonate and these forms are called coralline algae.
- In diatoms the cell wall is composed of silica to which protein and polysaccharide are added.
- Most algae are motile because of flagella.
- cilia do not occur in algae.
- Simple flagellate forms searches euglena have a single polar flagellum.
- Dinoflagellate have to two Flagella of different lengths.
- Algae are found in aquatic habitats both freshwater and marine.
- Cell wall and metabolism:-Thee key genera are penicillium ,spergillus saccharomyces.
- Fungi contain cell wall and produce spores.
- Three major group of fungi are recognised:-
- Molds, yeast and mushroom
- Few fungi are parasitic on animal including human.
- Fungal cell wall are similar to plant cell wall structurally but not chemically.
- Cellulose is present in the walls of some fungi.
- Many fungi have non cellulosic walls.
- Chitin is a polymer of glucose derivatives.
- Fungal cell wall are generally 80 to 90% polysaccharide with protein ,lipid, polyphosphate and inorganic ions.
- Fungal cell wall is used to classify fungi.
- all fungi chememorganotroph and have simple nutritional requirement.
- Mould are filamentous fungi.
- Commonly seen as bread cheese or fruit.
- A single filament is called a Haifa and collectively called mycelium.
- The fungal mycelium hyphal branches main grow up into the air above the surface and on this aerial branches sports are called conidia.
- Mushroom filamentous basidiomycetes that form large fruiting bodies.
- Mushroom line as sporophyte in the soil on the trunks of the trees.
3. Slime moulds:-
- The let genera are dictyostelum physarum.
- slime mould have phenotyping similarity to both fungi and protozoa.
- They have motile and can move across a solid surface rapidly.
- Slime mould can be divided into two groups what is the cellular slime moulds and another one is acellular slime moulds.
- Mastigophora:-The keys genera of protozoa are amoeba paramecium.
- Protozoa unicellular eukaryotic microorganism that lack cell walls.
- They are generally colourless and motile.
- Protozoa different from prokaryotes by eukaryotic nature from algae by the lake of chlorophyll from east and other fungi by their motility and absorbents of a cell wall and from slime mould by their lake of fruiting body formation.
- Protozoa obtain food by ingesting other organism or organic particles.
- Most protozoa are able to ingest particulate material by phagocytosis.
- Some protozoa can swallow particulate matter by operation of a special structure called a gullet or mouth.
- The flagellates they are motile by the action of flagella.
- This organism cause a number of serious disease in human and vertebrate animal.
- Sarcodines are organisms such as amoeba.
- They are always naked in the vegetative phase.
- Amoeba are parasites of human and other vertebrates.
- The move in these habitats by amoeboid movement.
- In some stage of this organism life cycle poses cilia.
- Ciliates have two fund of nuclei one is micronucleus and another one is macronucleus.
- The commonly known ciliates are genus paramecium.