Laboratory Diagnosis of Adenoviral Infections

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The clinical specimens are obtained from the throat swab or conjunctivall swab, from stool or urine.

Nasal epithelial cells of patients can be examined directly by immunofluorescence test to reveal viral antigens in the infected cells.

Virus isolation is carried out in different human cell lines – HeLa, HEp-2, etc.

The indication is performed by cytopathic effect with rounding, enlargement, and grape-like clustering of impaired cells.

Identification is made by viral cytopathic effect neutralization, or by inhibition of hemagglutination test.

Molecular-based assays are broadly used for viral DNA identification. DNA hybridization and PCR can identify various groups of the adenoviruses.

Fecal specimens can be directly examined by electron microscopy or by latex agglutination and ELISA tests for adenovirus presence.

Serological testing is used to detect the growth of antiviral antibodies during the infection course. Latex agglutination and ELISA are usually performed in paired sera test, and the fourfold elevation of specific antibodies is regarded as positive test. Viral neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition tests can be applied as well.

 

Principles of Disease Prophylaxis

Non-specific prophylaxis of adenoviral infections is achieved by maintaining of asepsis conditions, sterilization of medical instruments, chlorination of swimming pools and wastewaters, etc.

For specific prophylaxis formaldehyde-treated vaccine had the limited use in past. By now, the vaccine is not available. The novel types of adenovirus-specific vaccines are under the research, including type-specific live vaccines.

The treatment is supportive. Specific antiviral agents are not elaborated.