Laboratory Diagnosis of Rubella

Laboratory Diagnosis of Rubella

A leading test for detection of viral nucleic acids directly in clinical specimens (nasopharyngeal washings, blood, urine, fetal autopsy materials) is RT-PCR. (Reverse Transcriptase- Polymerase Chain reaction)

Laboratory Diagnosis of Rubella

Rubella Rash

Nasopharyngeal washings, nasal and throat swabs are taken for virus isolation.

The virus is inoculated into a monkey (e.g. Vero cells) or rabbit cell lines. The virus produces a slight cytopathic effect. Immunofluorescence assay or ELISA can be used for virus detection in cell cultures.

Laboratory Diagnosis of Rubella includes Serological diagnosis is confirmed by ELISA test. It might be carried out with paired sera, where the fourfold elevation of antibody levels is observed.

Rubella-specific IgM antibodies are detected with ELISA in the single specimen.

Principles of Disease Treatment and Prophylaxis

Rubella itself is a mild self-limited disease that doesn’t need specific treatment.

A live rubella vaccine is commonly used for specific prophylaxis of rubella. It confers high-grade lifelong immunity with few side effects. Vaccination resulted in a substantial decrease in the number of cases of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. Usually, rubella vaccine is a constituent of multivalent respiratory disease vaccine, e.g. MMR (measles, mumps and rubella attenuated live vaccine).

Vaccination coverage of population above 95% prevents the cases of rubella infection making conditions for virus elimination.