Microbial genetics: Genotype and Phenotype


Microbial genetics: Genotype and Phenotype

Microbial genetics studies the mechanisms of heredity and variability of different kinds of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, or protozoans).

The basic unit of heredity is gene, the segment of DNA, controlling one specific microbial property and usually encoding one protein molecule or certain polypeptide chain.

Genotype is the total combination of genes in a particular organism.

Phenotype is the realization of genotype via its interaction with the environment; it comprises all structural and functional traits of microbial cell.