Prevention of Microbial Antibiotic Resistance
The global progression and high levels of resistance to antimicrobial agents have become a tremendous problem of public health in the XXI century. Now more than 700,000 patients annually die from infections, caused by antibiotic-resistance strains. If the situation remains unchanged, further estimations predict the growth of fatality cases up to 10 mln every year by 2050.
In order to restrict the development of microbial resistance, several measures must be kept in antibiotic treatment.
Primarily, it is necessary to avoid indiscriminate antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics should be prescribed only in case of infection of bacterial nature. They should be administered in sufficiently high doses to inhibit primary microbial population and first-step mutants. If it is necessary, the synergistic drug combination is to be used (e.g., polychemotherapy in tuberculosis treatment).
It can be useful to limit a broad antibiotic administration for veterinary purposes in order to prevent resistant strain selection.
Finally, antibiotic treatment requires continuous monitoring of microbial drug resistance.
Side and Undesirable Effects of Antibiotic Use
Side effects of antibiotics mean harmful and unfavourable actions of antibiotics against the human body during the course of treatment.
Among them are:
- the emergence of allergic and pseudo allergic reactions;
- drug resistance development;
- undesirable reactions due to microbe suppression and degradation (endotoxic shock; dysbiosis and superinfection, antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and colitis, caused by Clostridium difficile);
- toxic effects from antibiotics (photosensitization, drug-induced hepatites, psychotic reactions, etc.);
- progression of secondary immunodeficiency.
Indiscriminate use of antibiotics may also cause different undesirable effects on the population level.
- For instance, mass administration of antibiotics can result in allergic and toxic disease spread among the human population (hypersensitivity, blood disorders, drug-mediated hepatites, etc.)
- Suppression of the normal flora of the body provides a high incidence of dysbiosis in the population.
- Uncontrolled antibiotic use can hide serious infection without its eradication. It is extremely important in tuberculosis treatment, where irregular or insufficient administration of antimycobacterial drugs provokes continuous transmission of drug-resistant disease.
- Finally, indiscriminate use of antibiotics elevates drug resistance within microbial communities. It is most evident for hospital microbial variants, where the majority of strains develops multidrug resistance under antibiotic pressure.