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The microorganisms generally cannot tolerate extreme pH values. Under highly alkaline or acidic conditions some microbial cell components may be hydrolyzed or their enzymes may get denatured. There are, however, some acidophilic and alkaliphile bacteria which can tolerate or need extreme pH conditions for growth. Many fungi are acidotolerant but most bacteria are not. Some acidotolerant bacteria like Lactobacillus and acidophiles like Thivbacillus and Sulfolobus create their own low pH environment by producing acids. Lactobacillus is a mixed acid fermenter and Sulfolobus produces sulphuric acid. Bacillus acidocaldarius and Thermo acidophilus are heterotrophic thermoacidophiles found in acidic environments created by chemolithotrophic sulphur oxidisers but do not produce acids themselves. Thermoplasma is an archeon without cell wall and live in hot acid coal refuse piles. Bacillus acidocaldarius is the native of acid hot spring.

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