Bacteria have variable size and shape and their morphological shape varies from typical rods and cocci, grotesque forms to prosthecate bacteria. They may reproduce by binary fission, budding and forming multicellular filamentous aggregates.

Metabolically they may be chemoautotrophic depending on enormous array of organic matter or even phototrophic oxygen-producing. They show anoxygenic photosynthesis to chemolithotrophy as a result of oxidation of various inorganic substances. The bacteria on the basis of their metabolism can transform almost all naturally occurring substances but they cannot break many of the man-made substances creating pollution. They occur in a wide range of habitats, e.g., from cold and dark depths of oceans to hot thermal springs, on and in roots and leaves of plants to the surface of the body of most animals including humans.

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