Typical example of cell wall-less Archaea is the genus Thermoplasma, in which the cells range form spheres to filaments. The cytoplasmic membrane of cell of Thermoplasma are made of diglycerol tetra ethers with 40-carbon isoprenoid hydrocarbons.

The species of Thermoplasma are thermophilic and acidophilic growing optimally at about 60°C and pH 2. They like sulphur-metabolizing archaea under anaerobic conditions require sulphur and reduce that to hydrogen sulphide. However, 16 S ribosomal RNA sequence homology points out that Thermoplasma is closely related to methanogen/halophile branch of archaeal phylogenetic tree than to sulphur metabolizing Thermophiles.

Thermoplasma grow in nature in coal refuse piles, and Solfatanas 1.e., the hot sulphur rich environments, volcanic areas or vents which yield sulphur vapours and steam. Survival time of this cell wall less archaea has been estimated to be 15 years.

Thermoplasma acidophilus is heterotrophic thermoacidophile found in acidic environments created by chemolithotrophic sulphur oxidisers but does not produce acid itself.

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