The extremophiles are the organisms which grow under extreme environmental conditions like temperature, salinity, pH, anaerobic conditions (sensitive to oxygen), extreme atmospheric pressure, water stress and others under which other organisms will generally not grow or the conditions that may kill other organisms. The term ‘extremophile’ has generally not been used in the old literature as it came up with the discovery of a unique group of procaryotes from extreme environments. It is from extreme environments. It is from Latin (extremus =
extreme, and Greek phila = love or friend of)
The extremophiles include extreme psychrophiles (cold loving) extreme thermophiles, (heat loving) alkalophiles (bacteria that live at very high pH or alkaline conditions), acidophiles (microorganisms) which show preference for growth at low pH, approximately 2.0), methanogens (methane producing microorganisms) osmophiles (the organisms which grow optimally inor on media of high osmotic pressure), barophiles (atmospheric pressure lovers) and sulphur metabolizers. Archaeoglobus profundus a sulphur reducer bear optimum growth temperature of 82°C.

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