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The prochlorons are the individuals of the genus Prochloron which is one of the two genera of Prochlorohytes (order Prochlorales) which are placed under Group II of oxygenic phototrophic bacteria, according to 9th edition of Bergey Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (1994). The second genus of the Prochlorophytes (order Prochlorales) is Prochlorothrix. The Prochloron is unicellular while Prochlorothrix is filamentous.

The individuals of Prochloron are unicellular, spherical without evident mucilaginous sheath. They divide by binary fission by equatorial constriction. So far the genus is found almost exclusively associated as extracellular symbionts of colonial ascidians (chiefly didemnids) on subtropical and tropical marine shores. The only species ts Prochloron didemni.

The Prochlorophytes resemble cyanophytes i.e., cyanobacteria from which they differ in that they form chlorophylls a, and b and lack accessory red or blue bilin pigments.

The electron micrographs of the photosynthetic bacterium Prochloron possesses extensive internal membranes. These membranes are known to be the sites of chemiosmotic generation of ATP by this bacterium which derives the energy for ATP formation from light energy. The photosynthetic membranes or chromatophores are cylindrically shaped vesicles in Prochloron.

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