Sexually transmitted disease
- Various STDs are caused by bacteria viruses and protozoa.
- Most STDs is are curable or at least can be controlled by antibiotics.
- long-term health consequences of STDs are serious.
- As an example some STDs can cause secondary health problems like pelvic inflammatory disease heart and nerve damage.
- Caused by NEISSERIA GONNORHOEA.
- Extremely sensitive to environmental condition.
- Killed very fast by drying, sunlight and UV light.
- Cause eye infection in newborn and adult.
- Transmitted by intimate host-to-host contact.
- Symptoms of gonorrhoea are different in male and female.
- In the female, a mild infection in the genital region and is difficult to distinguish from other infection.
- In the male, it causes a painful infection of the urethral canal.
- Treatment with penicillin has been successful.
- These are more serious disease than gonorrhoea.
- Caused by spirochaete.
- The organism cannot pass through normal skin so initial infection is through a small break on skin.
- The genital organ of male and female gets infected.
- Pathogen transmits from infected women to fittest.
- This kind of disease is known as congenital syphilis.
- Caused by Herpes viruses.
- Cause fever blister, cold sore.
- There are two types of herpes viruses:-
- HV1- cause cold sore and fever blister around the mouth and lips.
- HV2- infection at anogenital reasons cause a painful blister on the genital organ of male and female.
- Non-gonococcal urethritis can also be caused by protozoa and trichomonas vaginalis.
- They can survive outside the host if do not dry.
- Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome caused by the human immunodeficiency virus is a retrovirus.
- Which enters the host cell genome.
- Effect of HIV on the immune system leads to AIDS.
▶Animal transmitted disease:-animal Transmitted disease spread accidentally to host through direct contact aerosols or bites.
- Rabies is a very serious disease.
- Infected to human from animals.
- Caused by rhabdo virus family.
- Infected cells of central nervous system.
- Virus present in saliva rabied animals and enters the host body by bite wound.
- The incubation period is 10 to 14 days in dog.
- symptoms:-Virus proliferate in the brain causing fever , anxiety , a fear of swelling and ultimately result in respiratory paralysis.
(2) hantavirus pulmonary syndrome:-
- Caused by hantavirus a member of burya viridae family.
- Single stranded RNA viruses.
- Cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome with renal syndrome.
- Contaminated by rodents like mice, rat etc.
- Humans get infected by inhalation of virus contaminated rodents.
- There is no virus specific vaccines.
- Can be prevented by avoiding contact with rodent and its habitat.
▶Insect and ticks transmitted disease:-
- Caused by rickettsia Shia a small bacteria grow intracellular by
- Spread by blood sucking anthropoids.
- Typhus fever :- Rickettsia prowazekii.
- transmitted from human to human by body or head.
- Rickettsia comes from contaminated faeces of louse.
- The incubation period in human wants 2-3 weeks.
- Symptoms are fever headache, body weakness, rashes in armpits and then to other parts only accept facepalm and sole of feet.
- No treatment may cause damage to the central nervous system lungs, kidney, heart.
(2) spotted fever:-
- Transmitted by ticks. (Dog ticks and wood ticks).
- Contaminated faecal matter of tax injected to organism body by bite, rubbing or stretching.
- Incubation period 3- 12 days inside the host cell nucleus as well as cytoplasm.
- Symptoms are fever several headaches, rash on palm and sole, a gastrointestinal problem like diarrhoea vomiting.
- Tetracycline, chloramphenicol antibiotics are effective.
Other Rickettsial diseases:-
- Fever is a pneumonia-like infection caused by Coxiella Brunetti.
- Transmitted to animal by insect bite and from animal to man.
- Affect animal and human.
- Caused by spirochaete.
- Symptoms are effects central nervous system, visual disturbance, facial paralysis miscarriage and stillbirth.
- Treatment can be done by tetracycline and penicillin.
- Caused by protozoa Plasmodium vivax.
- Transmitted by female mosquitoes of gonas anopheles.
- Present at the salivary gland of insect.
- symptoms are vomiting, severe headache cycle, anaemia due to loss of RBC.
- Treatment of effective chloroquine and primaquine together.
- Caused by bacteria.
- Yersinia pestis grand negative, facultative, aerobic rod.
- Domestic and wild rodents are disease reservoir.
- Human is an accidental host.
- Symptoms are lymph node pain, blackening of skin death within 3 to 5 days.
- Treatment is as effective with alternate use of streptomycin and tetracycline