Study Notes on Strategies for enhancement in food production

Nowadays with ever increasing population of the world enhancement of food production is a necessity.

Animal husbandry

  • It is the agricultural practice of breeding and raising livestock.
  • Animal husbandry deals with the care and breeding livestock like buffaloes, cows, cattle, sheep ,camels, goat etc which is useful to humans.
  • It also include farming and fisheries in which fisheries include catching, sharing ,selling and all.
  • In addition to conventional practices of animal breeding and care newer technologies also have to be applied to achieve improvement in quality and productivity.

Management of farms and farm animal:

  • Farm management gives the much needed boost to our food production.
  • Some of the management procedures and employed in various animal farm systems.

Dairy farm management

  • Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its production for human consumption.
  • In dairy farm management it mostly deals with the process and system that increases yield and improve quality of milk.
  • Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential.
  • For the yield potential to be realise the cattle have to be we will looked after should have adequate water and be maintained disease free.
  • Nowadays much of these processes have become mechanised which reduce chance of direct contact of the produce with the handler.
  • Regular visit by veterinary doctors would be mandatory.

Poultry farm management

  • Basically poultry is the class of domesticated birds used for food for their eggs.
  • They include chicken and ducks.
  • The word poultry is often used to refer to the meat of only this birds but in a more general science it may refer to the meat of other birds too.
  • Proper feed, water and also hygiene healthcare are important components of poultry farm management.

Animal breeding

  • Animal breeding is all about increasing the yield of animal and improving the desirable qualities of the produce.
  • Breed means a group of animal related by decent and similar in most character like general appearance, feature, size configuration etc
  • When breeding is between animal of the same read it is known as in breathing while process between different grades known as outbreeding.
  • Inbreeding is necessary if you want to evolve a pure line in any animal also in reading exposes harmful recessive genes that are eliminated by selection.

Outbreeding

  • Outbreeding is the breathing of the unrelated animals in which may be between individuals of the same breed but having no common ancestors for 4 to 6 generation.

Outcrossing

  • This is the practice of mating of animals within the same breed but having no common ancestor on either side of their Pedigree of 4-6 generation.
  • It is the best breathing process for animals that are below average in productivity in milk production.

Cross breeding

  • In this method superior mail of one breed are method with superior female of another breed.
  • The progeny hybrid animal made them self be used for commercial production.
  • Alternatively they may be subjected to some form of inbreeding and selection to develop new stable breeds that may be superior to the existing breeds.

Interspecific hybridization

  • In this method male and female animal of two different related spaces are method also in some cases the progeny may combine desirable features of both the parents.

Controlled breeding experiments

  • This is the collection from the mail that is chosen as a parent and injected into the reproductive tract of the selected female by the breeder .
  • It is carried out using artificial insemination.
  • Most of the time the success rate of crossing much your male and female animals is cellulose or even though artificial insemination is carried out.
  • To improve the chances of successful production of hybrids other means are also used.
  • Multiple ovulation embryo transfer technology is one of such program for herd improvement.

Bee keeping

  • Basically beekeeping of apiculture is the maintenance of hives of honey bees for the production of honey.
  • Honey bees also produce beeswax which find many uses in industry.
  • The increased demand of honey now a days leads to large scale beekeeping practices.
  • The following points are important for successful beekeeping:
  • Selection of suitable location for keeping the bees.
  • Catching and hiring of swarms.
  • Knowledge of the nature and habit of bees.
  • Management of bees during different season.

Fisheries

  • Fishery is an industry devoted to the catching, processing and selling fishes a large number of population is dependent on fish product and other aquatic animals such as prawn, crab, lobster, edible oyster.
  • Fisheries has an important place in Indian economy which provide income and employment to millions of fishermen and farmers.
  • In order to meet the increasing demands of fisheries different techniques have been employed to increase the production rate essay example aquaculture and pisciculture.

Plant breeding

  • Plant breeding as a technology help increasing yields to a very large extent.
  • Green revolution was dependent to a large extent on plant breeding techniques for development of hiding and disease resistant varieties in wheat, rice, maize.
  • Plant breeding programs are carried out in a systematic way world wide in government institution and commercial companies. The main steps in breeding a new genetic variety of a crop are:

Collection of variability:

  • In many crops pre existing genetic variability is available from wild relatives of the crop.
  • Collection and preservation of all the different wild varieties species and relatives of the cultivated spaces is a free request side for effective exploitation of natural gene available in the population.
  • The entire collection having all the diverse release for all jeans in a given crop is called germplasm collection.

Evolution and selection of parents

  • The germplasm is evaluated so that to identify plants with desirable combination of characters and those selected plants are multiplied and used in the process of hybridization.

Cross hybridization among the selected parents

  • The desired characters have very often to be combined from two different plants.
  • By cross hybridizing the two parents to produce hybrids that genetically combine the desired characters in one plant is known as cross hybridization.
  • This is a very time taking process also it is not necessary that the hydrides do combine the desirable character.

 Selection and testing of superior recombinants

  • This is the state consisting of selection among the progeny of the hybrid those plants that have the desired character combination which process is crucial to the success of the breeding objective and requires careful scientific evaluation of the progeny.

Testing, release ,and commercialisation of cultivars

  • The newly selected lines are evaluated for their yield and other agronomic traits of quality disease resistance etc.
  • Evaluation is done by growing trees in the research field and recording their performance under ideal fertilizer application, irrigation and other crop management practices.
  • The evaluation in research field is followed by testing the material in farmers field.
  • The material is evaluated in in comparison to the best available local crop cultivation a check of reference cultivars.
  • As we know India is mainly an agricultural. After India’s independence one of the main challenge facing the country was that of producing enough food for the increasing population.
  • As only limited land is fit for cultivation India has to strive to increase yield per unit area from existing farmland.
  • There are some Indian hybrid crops of high yielding varieties light rice, sugar cane, millets.

RICE

  • During the period 1960 to 2000 the wheat production increased from 11 million tones 275 million stones while rice production went from 35 millions tonnes 85 millions tonnes.
  • This was due to the semi dwarf varieties of wheat and rice.

Sugar cane

  • Saccharum barberi was originally grown in North India but had poor sugar content and yield.
  • Tropical plants grows in South India saccharum officinarum had thick steam and higher sugar content but did not grow well in North India.

Millets

  • Hybrid maize and bajra have been successfully developed in India.
  • Hybrid breeding have lead to the development of several high yielding varieties resistance to water stress.

Plant breeding for disease resistance

  • Breeding and development of multiverse resistant to disease enhance food production in this situation.

Methods of breeding for disease resistance

  • Breeding is carried out by the conventional breeding techniques.
  • The conventional methods of breeding for disease resistance is that of hybridisation and selection.
  • This steps are essentially identical to those for breeding for any other agronomic characters such as high yield.
  • Conventional breeding is often consists by the available of limited number of disease resistance genes that are present and identified in various crop varieties for wild relatives.
  • Plants having desirable character can then be either multiplied directly or can be used in breeding.
  • Mutation is the process by which genetic variations are created through changes in the best sequence within jeans resulting in the creation of a new character or trait not found in the parental type.
  • It is quite possible to induced mutation artificially through use of chemicals are the radiations and selecting using the plants that have the desirable character as the source of breeding.
  • Hence there is a need to introduce the resistance genes into the high yielding cultivated varieties as example resistance to yellow mosaic virus in windy was transferred from a wild spaces and result in a new variety of a esculentus called parbhani Kranti..

Plant breeding for developing resistance to insect pests

  • Another major cause for large-scale destruction of crop plant and crop produced is insect and pest infections.
  • Insect resistance in host crop plants may be due to morphological biochemical physiological characters.

 Plant breeding for improved food quality

  • More than 840 million people in this world do not have adequate food to meet their Delhi food and nutritional requirement.
  • Breeding crops with higher level of vitamins and minerals or higher protein and healthy fats is the most practical means to improve public health which is known as biofortification.
  • Breeding for improved nutritional quality is undertaken with the objective of improving:
  • protein content and quality
  • oil content and quality
  • vitamins content
  • micronutrient and mineral content
  • the Indian agricultural research institute Delhi has also released several vegetable crops that are rich in vitamins and minerals.

Single cell protein

  • Conventional agricultural production of cereals ,pulses, vegetables fruits may not be able to meet the demand of food at the rate which human and animal population is increasing so one of the alternate sources of protein for animal and human nutrition is single cell protein.
  • Microbes are being grown as industrial scale by the source of good protein.

Tissue culture

  • Any part of a plant taken out and grown in a test tube under sterile conditions in special nutrients media. This capacity to generate a whole plant from any cell or explant is called totipotency.
  • The method in which producing thousands of plants through tissue culture is called micropropagation.
  • Aach of these plants will be genetically identical to the original plant from which they are grown also known as somaclones.
  • Another important application of the method is the recovery of healthy plants from disease plant. All the plant is infected with virus the meristem is free of virus. Hence one can remove the meristem and grow it in vitro to obtain Virus free plants.
  • Scientist have succeed in culturing meristem of a banana, sugarcane, potato etc.