Sugarcane productivity and how it is affected by stress

Sugarcane productivity and how it is affected by stress

Sugarcane productivity and how it is affected by stress

Sugarcane productivity

Sugarcane grows under a wide array of agro-climatic conditions extending from the tropics to subtropics. It is grown between 30N and 30S and is cultivated in 20.42 million ha producing 1,333.2 million tonnes with average cane productivity of 65.20 tonnes / h. Cane productivity in the tropical regions is comparatively higher due to even sunshine throughout the year, well-distributed rainfall, and ideal conditions for luxurious growth, while in the subtropics the crop experiences a marked winter, which has an impact on growth and growth. Erratic rainfall and drought and high temperatures in the late season. In India, the average yield of cane productivity is between 66 and 70 tons/ha/year.

Stress and its impact on sugarcane productivity

Stress is a condition that hinders the expression of the full genetic potential of a living being. As sessile organisms, plants face many stressful conditions that require the development of a variety of developmental and physiological strategies to cope with or avoid stress. However, these strategies usually require metabolic energy, which is more likely to be directed towards useful production. Biotic and abiotic stress affects the productivity of the sugar cane.

Impact of abiotic stress on sugarcane productivity

Sugarcane productivity is significantly affected by abiotic stress such as salinity, alkalinity, drought, and waterlogging. Drought is a major cause of reduced productivity due to the morpho-physiological effects of water deficiency on the sugar cane (e.g. reduced photosynthesis and inhibition of growth). Sugarcane, which is a typical glycophyte, exhibits stunted growth or no growth under salinity, with yields falling to 50% or more compared to its true potential. Apart from this, in flood-prone areas under cultivation of sugarcane, waterlogging affects all stages of crop growth and can reduce germination, rooting, tilling, and growth resulting in a reduction in yield.

Elucidating tolerance mechanisms would make it possible to develop cultivars that are more tolerant of drought and salinity, allowing cultivation in marginal areas, while ensuring the sustainability and viability of the sector in such drought-prone areas. Plant irrigation is a good option for agriculture, but it also increases soil salinity. In addition, this corresponds to 65% of global water demand and, given the expansion of cultivation to areas without fresh water, tolerance to drought will become increasingly important. Drought tolerance will also contribute to the reduction of irrigation and water use. Although sugar cane can survive long dry periods, it requires a fair amount of water for optimum yield, leading to irrigation in many areas.

Impact of biotic stress on sugarcane productivity

Genetic resistance to pests and diseases is an indispensable and essential condition for plant breeding. Pests and pathogens often conquer new territories and are well known to be dynamically evolving towards resistance breaking, always posing new challenges. In fact, biotic stress is of particular concern in sugarcane breeding programs, as it may have a significant economic impact on susceptible cultivars.

Sugarcane diseases and pests are a constraint on crop production throughout India, and disease losses are estimated to be between 10% and 15%. Among them, red rot, smut, wilt, and sett rot are major fungal diseases. Bacterial diseases such as leaf scald disease (LSD) and mouse stunting disease (RSD) have been found to cause significant yield loss in some regions. Mosaic is prevalent among viral diseases in all states; however, its severity is felt in specific situations. In addition, grassy shoots caused by phytoplasma are also a potential disease, which can cause considerable damage to the production of sugar cane. Emergency and spread of newly recorded yellow leaf disease (YLD) have become a major constraint in many areas. Borer pests, pyril, scale insects, whiteflies, termites, and mealybugs are present almost all over the country.

Environmental impact of sugarcane production

By losing natural habitats, extensive use of water, heavy use of agrochemicals, discharge, and leakage of contaminated effluent and air pollution, the production, and processing of sugar causes environmental effects. This contributes to biodiversity, soil, air, and water destruction where sugar and downstream habitats are created. Impacts related to sugar cane irrigation and drainage from emissions are of special concern.

How severe is climate change on sugarcane?

Sugarcane is a C4 species; temperature rise in the 8-34 ° C range increases the assimilation of carbon dioxide and enhances cane growth during winter, but low temperatures reduce the rate of photosynthesis and leaf growth. The production of sugar cane was limited by low temperatures below 15 ° C, but the temperature increased during the low-temperature phase under changing climatic conditions, raising the yield of sugar cane. High temperatures are likely to decrease the occurrence and severity of frost and prolong the development of frost considered to be low quality in sugar cane during the winter months. Climate change is an important consequence of sugarcane production in the world because of its relatively low adaptive capacity, poor forecasting system, and high vulnerability to natural hazards.