Water borne diseases
Water borne diseases
- Many water borne disease human pathogens are transmitted by water used for cooking , drinking and swimming.
- Microbes like bacteria virus and protozoa cause disease.
- Mostly pathogens transmitted in drinking water.
- Microbes transmitted in water grow in intestine and leave the body in faeces.
- From which faecal pollution of water consume the water and pathogen may colonies in intestine to cause disease.
- So water borne diseases are infectious.
- Water is infectious even it contain small number of organism.
- Infection depends on virulence of pathogen and ability of host resistance.
- Caused by Legionella pneumophilia.
- Thin gram negative road.
- Complex nutritional requirement with a high iron.
- Cause respiratory disease.
- The pathogen usually present at cooling towers evaporative condenser of air conditioner.
- Grow in water and spread as aerosol in air.
- Symptoms are headache and fever.
- Need no treatment to cure resolve in 2-5 days.
- Sensitive to antibiotics rifampicin and erythromycin.
▶Drinking water disease:-
- Caused by vibrio cholerae.
- Gram negative and curved rod.
- transmitted through contaminated water.
- Symptoms are vibrio attached to small intestine epithelial cell and grow to release enterotoxin.
- Which cause used fluid loss.
- Treatment with streptomycin or tetracycline shorten the Cholera period with that oral electrolyte solution replacement is the actual treatment.
- caused by giardia lambia.
- it is a flagellated protozoans.
- Transmitted to human by contaminated water.
- Sometimes it is food borne and sexually transmitted.
- Symptoms are false smelling nature of diarrhoea and absence of blood or mucus in stool, watery diarrhoea ,intestinal cramps.
- Treatment can be done by using quinocrine and metronidazole.
- Caused by cryptosporidium porvum is a protozoa.
- This is a intestinal pathogen in dairy cattle.
- symptoms are severe diarrhoea.
- In a normal infected person this protozoa is self-limiting.
- But AIDS patient develop serious complication.
- For normal person treatment is not required.
- Cryptosporidium is highly resistant to to chlorine.
- So only can be removed by sedimentation and filtration.
- Caused by protozoan Entamoeba histolytica.
- Transmitted from contaminated water sometimes through food.
- Symptoms are sometimes this is symptomatic but the infection continues to lead on certain with diarrhoea and severe intestinal cramps.
- This is an anaerobic amoeba.
- Diarrhoea then continues to dysentery with fever.
- If not treated then it leads to liver, lungs and brain.
- Can be treated with drug dehydremrtine and dilomanide furoate.
This disease divided into two types:-
(1) Food poisoning on intoxication:
- Due to consumption of microbial toxin containing food.
- The microbes liberates exotoxins the food and do not grow inside the host.
(2) Food borne infection:-
- This is host infection due to pathogen contaminated food.
▶ Food positioning:-
(1) Staphylococcal food poisoning:-
- Caused by staphylococcus aureus.
- Release some enterotoxins to food and symptoms absorbed within 1-6 hour.
- Symptoms are nausea ,vomiting and diarrhoea.
(2) Clostridium perfringens poisoning:-
- Obligate anaerobe.
- produce enterotoxin.
- Symptoms are diarrhoea, intestinal cramp, sometimes nausea and vomiting.
- Severe type of food poisoning.
- Caused by clostridium botulinum.
- produce exotoxin and aerobic.
- Toxic can be avoided by heating up to 80 degree Celsius for 10 minutes.
- Caused by s typhi .
- Symptoms are headache ,vomiting diarrhoea and fever.
- Escherichia coli:-
- E coli produce enterotoxins.
- Symptoms are diarrhoea with blood, a kidney failure.
- Source are uncooked or undercooked meat.
- C. Jejuni and c. Fetus
- gram negative, curved road and microaerobic.
- Mostly found in children.
- Symptoms are bloody stool.
- Caused by listeria monocytogenes.
- Contaminated through meat dairy products.
- This is a virus mediated inflammation in liver.
- Caused by because virus single stranded RNA virus.
- Transmitted through faecal matters, contaminated water food, milk and cause hepatitis B.
- Hepatitis b caused by DNA containing hepatitis virus.
- Transmitted by infected blood, maternal transmission and STD.
- Third type hepatitis virus in hepatitis C.
- Cause chronic elements.
- There are also hepatitis D and E.