What Are the Different Diseases Which Come Under Neurosurgery?

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The brain and spinal cord are the two most important parts of the nervous system. It acts as a relay. It transmits information to different parts of the body. The actions taken by the body are because of the information given by the nervous system. This system is divided into two subcategories – the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Together, they make sure our body is working fine. Some diseases prevent this system from working in a normal manner. The branch of medicine which deals with the conditions and diseases of the nervous system is known as neurology. When the treatment requires surgical intervention, then neurosurgery comes into play.

Following explained are the conditions which are dealt with by a neurosurgeon –

• Brain Tumor

It is the condition in which abnormal cells form within the brain. They can either start in the brain or at other places and travel to the brain. A malignant tumor is cancerous whereas a benign one or non-cancerous. The rate at which it grows depends on the extent of the tumor. This growth determines the function of the tumor.

Some of the types of tumor are glioma, meningioma, brain metastases, etc. These occur when there is an error in DNA mutation. It is identified with the help of symptoms such as the onset of headache, nausea, vomiting, vision problem, seizures, etc.

• Epilepsy

It is a group of neurological disorders in which there is abnormal brain activity leading to seizures. There is a random period of unusual behavior which causes sensation and loss of awareness. The symptoms which are observed by the patients can be of different intensity. Some people twitch their arms while some of them can stare at a blank space.

You should consult a doctor when they last for more than five minutes and after it has stopped, there is no return of consciousness. It is linked to various factors such as genes, head injury, brain conditions, etc.

• Pituitary Tumor

Tumors that begin in the pituitary gland are known as pituitary tumors. Most of them are non-cancerous and don’t spread to other parts of the body. They cause glands to produce lower levels of hormones. There may not be symptoms in each case. Some of the symptoms which are associated with these tumors are headache, vision loss, feeling cold, etc.

Some of the common treatment options are as follows –

• Brain Tumor Surgery

It is an operation to remove tumors from the brain. Surgery depends on the type and grade of the tumor. It is the first treatment which is recommended by the doctor. There are different surgical options. In cortical mapping, areas of the brain which control the senses and language, are identified. If the skull needs to be opened, then craniotomy is the way to go. You are first given anesthesia and then incisions are made in the scalp to remove as much tumor as possible.

• Epilepsy Surgery

It is a surgical procedure given to control seizures. The main aim of this surgery is to remove the particular part of the brain which causes seizures. In vagus nerve stimulation, a device is placed under the skin which lowers the onset of the seizure by giving an electrical jolt. Temporal lobe epilepsy is treated by cutting away the area of the brain tissue which is affected. The focus of the seizure is removed in this method.

• Deep Brain Stimulation

It is a surgical procedure that is mostly done for Parkinson’s disease, OCD and Dystonia. Electrodes are implanted in certain specific areas of the brain. They produce electrical impulses that regulate abnormal impulses. The impulses given are controlled by a device that looks like a pacemaker. There may be some side effects after the surgery such as seizure, infection, headache, stroke, temporary pain at the site of implantation, etc.