Mycorrhiza| Overview

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Mycorrhiza| Overview

  • A symbiotic mutual relationship between plant and a fungus is known as mycorrhiza.
  • Mycorrhiza originates from several trees in cooler atmospheres.
  • These fungi are not modified to reduce cellulose and other plant materials; instead, they arise their nutrients and sugars from the roots of their living plant host.

Types of mycorrhiza:-

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza:-

  • In this, both vesicles and arbuscles are cultivated together.
  • VAM is by far the ordinary of all mycorrhiza and has been reported in more than 90% of land plants.
  • Mostly they are found in bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and most of the angiosperms.
  • VAM has been noted in lower Devonian plant Rhynia.
  • VAM is produced by accepted mycelial function belong to endogonaceae under Mucorales of Zygomycotina and those members produced zygospores.
Mycorrhiza| Overview
Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza

Ericoid mycorrhiza

Ericoid mycorrhiza is originated in the different member of Ericaceae like Erica, calluna, Vaccinum, Rhododendron etc.

  • During pace alliance, the rootlets of the plant are wrapped by very sparse, loose, dark, septate hyphae that penetrate the cortex forming intercellular coils.
  • After three to four weeks the spirals degenerate like arbuscular of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza also most of them are grown in acid soil with less amount of P and N nutrition.
Mycorrhiza| Overview
Ericoid mycorrhiza

 

Gentianoid mycorrhizae:-

Seedling of some members of Gentianaceae gets infected within 2weeks of germination.

  • In the root, the cortical cells become full of irregular spirals of aseptate hyphae.

Orchidoid mycorrhiza:-

  • Orchidoid harvest millions of small seeds per capsule weighing about 0.3-14 mg.
  • The embryo of seed contain 10- 100 cells and there is virtually no storage of food.
Mycorrhiza| Overview
Orchidoid mycorrhiza
  •  Initially the fungus and enter embryo and colonies prohibited to the cortical cell and deliver the nutrition also for or non-green orchid this is crucial throughout their lives. Nowadays it is a case of parasitism by orchids on the mycorrhizal fungi.

Monotropoid mycorrhiza:-

  • Monotropa hypothesis is a non-green saprophytic herb. It has thick fleshy fruits that are invested with the hi full sheet and of notifying Hartig net in the cortical zone.
  • Due to the absence of chlorophyll they are incapable of synthesis and provide carbohydrate to the fungus. Boletus is a mycorrhizal fungus correlated with the root of both pine and Monotropa.

Agriculture application of mycorrhiza:-

  • Mycorrhiza fungi, which stimulating plant growth, which stabilizes more carbon into vegetation, directly and indirectly, contribute to the stabilisation of carbon in the soil.
  • The fungi filaments have a carbon-rich element that can reside in the soil for decades. •It provides the first step for other soil fungi to transform plant waste into stable soil carbon. •Both of these characteristics have the potential to lessen atmospheric, carbon-based GHG.
  • Recent authoritative research on climate change has evaluated that there is already so much GHG in the atmosphere and to halt and reverse the effects of human-induced climate change, GHG generation must first be lessened and the GHGs must then be drawn out of the atmosphere.
  • Plants, the nutrition of which can be improved by mycorrhiza fungi also have the ability, if harnessed suitably, to fix carbon back into the soil in sufficient volumes to make a crucial contribution to efforts to combat environment change.
  • Over the last 60 years, mycorrhiza fungi have been depleted from soils where industrial agricultural policies have undervalued their importance as one of the elements of soil health.

References

  1. https://www.springer.com/journal/572
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/ectomycorrhizae
  3. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-017-3209-3_22