The process of cell division that occurs after fertilization is called embryogenesis. Embryogenesis encompasses the series of cellular and developmental events that lead to the formation and growth of an embryo. After fertilization, the zygote, which is the result of the fusion of sperm and egg, undergoes repeated rounds of cell division through mitosis.
During embryogenesis, the zygote divides and gives rise to a ball of cells known as a blastocyst. The blastocyst further develops and undergoes differentiation, where the cells start to specialize and form different tissues and organs. This process involves complex cellular rearrangements, cell migration, and tissue morphogenesis.
Embryogenesis is a dynamic and highly regulated process guided by genetic programs and signaling pathways. It involves the precise coordination of cell proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenetic movements to establish the basic body plan and structures of the developing organism. The various stages of embryogenesis differ among different species, but the overall process involves the formation of germ layers, establishment of body axes, and the development of organs and systems.