Hexose monophosphate shunt

Introduction Hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP) or pentose phosphate pathway or phosphogluconate pathway is an alternative pathway to glucose oxidation. The enzymes of the HMP...

Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR)

The term “plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria” [PGPR] as introduced by Kloepper and Schroth (1978) is used to define bacteria that are found in the rhizosphere...

Microbial Interaction in Rhizosphere

The rhizosphere is the part of the soil directly influenced by the root system. It is intensively colonized by microorganisms and represents an environmental...

Chromatography: Definition, Types, Principle and Applications

Introduction In many fermentation processes, chromatographic techniques are used to isolate and purify relatively low conc. of metabolic products. Chromatography is the science which...

Microbial Interactions and its types

Introduction Microorganism commonly interacts among each other in a positive or negative manner, neutralism is a rare and perhaps only theoretical phenomenon. Within a...

Fermentation Processes

Fermentation Processes A) Batch fermentations A tank of fermentor is filled with the prepared mash of raw material to be fermented. The temperature and...

Criteria for Fermentor Designing

Criteria for Fermentor Designing Introduction The design and mode of operation of a fermentor mainly depends on the production organism, the optimal operating condition...

Design of a Fermentor

Fermentor (Bioreactor) A bioreactor is a specially designed vessel which is built to support the growth of high concentration of microorganisms. It must be...

Fermentation Media

Introduction The growth medium meant for the cultivation of a production strain and subsequent production of either microbial cells or a biochemical product is...

Plasmids: Types, Structure and Properties

Definition Plasmids are extra-chromosomal circular, double-stranded DNA material present in the cell cytoplasm. They may autonomously or maybe in an episomal state. They are...