Characteristics of plant derived vaccines
There are many important characteristics of plant-derived vaccines that could make them particularly attractive for the control of infectious diseases in developing countries.
- Plant-derived vaccines could be produced on a very large scale and therefore promise a very low cost.
- Vaccines could be orally active to facilitate needle-free administration.
- The vaccines stimulate the immune response at the mucosal level and would therefore be particularly effective against diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, diarrhoea, diseases, STDs, HIV, etc., which infect the mucosal system and facilitate needle-free administration.
- Multi-antigen vaccines may be produced either by multiple gene splicing or by mixing different plant-derived vaccines. For example, it could theoretically be possible for an antigen-producing plant to stimulate effective immune response to cholera, rotavirus, etc.
Plants are among the most efficient bioreactors and have numerous benefits for the production of plant-derived vaccines.
- The ability to increase production at low cost by planting more acres than by building fermentation capacity.
- From a technological point of view, plants have an advantage over microbes in that they can accommodate the production of a wide range of protein types.
- Edible plants are very effective as a delivery vehicle for inducing oral immunisation.
- Adjuvant is not necessary for immune response.
- Easy to separate and purify vaccines from plant materials.
- Effective prevention of pathogenic contamination of animal cells.
- Effective maintenance of vaccine activity by controlling the temperature of plant cultivation.
- Easy for the system of mass production by breeding compared to the animal system.
- Reduced dependence on foreign supplies.
- Storage near the use site.
- Protection of antigens through bioencapsulation.