• The main phylogenetic groups of algae are.


  • living thing organisms of the dominion Protista, characterised by a silica shell of typically intricate and delightful sculpturing.
  • Most diatoms exist on an individual basis, though some are part of to make colonies.
  • they’re sometimes chromatic or dark-brown and are found in fresh- and water, in damp soil, and on the damp surface of plants. They reproduce asexually by cellular division.
  • once aquatic diatoms die they drop to an all-time low, and also the shells, not being subject to decay, collect within the ooze and eventually type the fabric referred to as a filter.
  • Diatoms will occur during a lot of compact type as a soft, chalky, light-weight rock, called diatomite.
  • diatomaceous earth is employed as associate building material against each heat and sound, in creating dynamite and different explosives, and for filters, abrasives, and similar product.
  • Diatoms have deposited most of the earth’s sedimentary rock, and far rock oil is of algae origin.
  • The surface mud of a pool, ditch, or legume can nearly always yield some diatoms.


  • The division of the dominion of Protista consisting of the photosynthetic organism unremarkably better-known as green algae.
  • the varied species will be living thing, multi-cellular, coenocytic (having over one nucleus during a cell), or colonial.
  • division square measure mostly aquatic or marine, some sorts are terrestrial, occurring on damp soil, on the trunks of trees, on damp rocks and in snow banks. numerous species are extremely specialised.



  • The little phylum of the dominion Protista, consisting of principally living thing aquatic algae.
  • Some euglenoids contain chloroplasts with the photosynthetic pigments; others are heterotrophic and might ingest or absorb their food.
  • The copy happens by longitudinal cell division. Most sleep in fresh. the foremost characteristic genus is Euglena, common in ponds and pools, particularly once the water has been impure by runoff from fields or lawns on that fertilizers are used. There are more or less one thousand species of euglenoids.


  • The Massive cluster of flagellate protistis. Some species are heterotrophic, however several square measure chemical process organisms containing pigment.
  • numerous different pigments could mask the inexperienced of those chlorophylls. different species are endosymbionts of marine animals and protozoa, and play a very important half within the biology of coral reefs.
  • Many dinoflagellates is asexual, through easy division of cells following cellular division. The dinoflagellates square measure necessary constituents of organism, and intrinsically are primary food sources in hotter oceans.
  • several forms square measure phosphorescent; they’re mostly to blame for the fluorescence visible at the hours of darkness in tropical seas.
  • There are more or less 2000 species of dinoflagellates.



  • The massive cluster of eukaryotes alga unremarkably called golden alga, found principally in fresh.
  • Originally they were taken to incorporate all such forms except the diatoms and cellular alga, however since then they need been divided into many completely different teams supported pigmentation and cell structure.
  • In several chrysophytes the cell walls square measure composed of polyose with massive quantities of silicon dioxide.
  • erstwhile classified as plants, they contain the chemical process pigments chlorophyll a and c.
  • They are some circumstances they’re going to reproduce sexually, however, the standard under copy is a biological process.


  • The phylum of the dominion Protista consisting of these organisms unremarkably called brown alga. several of the world’s acquainted seaweeds are members of the division.
  • In just like the chrysophytes alga derives their colour from the presence, within the cell chloroplasts, of many dark-brown pigment pigments, as fucoxanthin.
  • With solely some exceptions, alga square measure marine, growing within the colder oceans of the globe, several within the zone.
  • wherever they’re subjected to nice stress from wave action; others grow in the problem. There are more or less 1500 species of division.



  • The phylum of the dominion Protista consisting of the chemical process organisms unremarkably better-known as red alga.
  • The Members of the division have a characteristic clear red or violet color imparted by accent pigments known as phycobilins.
  • The alga square measure cellular and are characterised by a good deal of branching, however, while not differentiation into complicated tissues.
  • There are 4000 better-known marine species of red algae; some species occur in fresh


  • The phylum of prokaryotic aquatic microorganism that acquire their energy through chemical action.
  • they’re typically spoken as blue-green alga, although it’s currently better-known that they’re not associated with any of the opposite protistis teams, that square measure all eukaryotes.
  • Eubacterium could also be acellular or colonial. relying upon the species and environmental conditions, colonies could type filaments, sheets or perhaps hollow balls.
  • Some thready colonies show the power to completely differentiate into 3 different cell sorts.
  • Despite their name, completely different species will be red, brown, or yellow; blooms (dense plenty on the surface of a body of water) of a red species are same to own given the sea its name.
  • There are 2 main forms of pigmentation. Most eubacterium contain chlorophyll a, along with numerous proteins known as phycobilins, that offer the cells a typical blue-green to grayish-brown color.
  • some genera, however, lack phycobilins and have chlorophyll b as well as a, giving them a bright inexperienced color.
  • Unlike microorganism, they are heterotrophic decomposers of the wastes and bodies of different organisms, .
  • Eubacterium are therefore plant producers of their own food from easy raw materials. Nitrogen-fixing eubacterium would like only nitrogen and carbon dioxide to live.
  • they’re ready to fix nitrogen gas, that can not be absorbed by plants, into ammonia (NH3), nitrites (NO2) or nitrates (NO3), which may be absorbed by plants and born-again to macromolecule and nucleic acids.
  • Cyanobacteria are found in virtually each conceivable environment, from oceans to fresh water to blank rock to soil.