Milestones of Biotechnology


Milestones of Biotechnology

History of Biotechnology 

In the late 19 century, many discoveries and developments were made to gene birth of molecular biology by biochemists, geneticists and cell biologists. The term biotechnology was described in a bulletin of the Bureau of Biotechnology published in 1920. The articles in this bulletin described the different roles of microbes in the leather industry, pest control and fermentations. The historical developments in biotechnology are summarized in Table Below. The concept of molecular biology, microbiology, and biotechnology has changed the scenario of pharmaceutical developments. The advancements in recombinant (rDNA) and monoclonal antibody technology have led to developments of new drug molecules. Products developed from the basis of genetic engineering are recombinant soluble CD4, tissue plasminogen, erythropoietin, colony-stimulating factors etc. Different types of diagnostic kits are developed by using monoclonal antibodies. The most developing field in pharmaceutical biotechnology is the production of therapeutically active proteins and peptides. These drugs have been extensively utilized in replacement therapies where the patient is unable to produce the required protein (e.g. insulin). Many drugs and vaccines are developed by using basic concepts of biotechnology. Genomics, pharmacogenomics, proteomics, gene therapy, gene cloning and tissue engineering are the present focus of biotechnology

Milestones of Biotechnology



Pasteur proposes that microbes that cause fermentation 1857
Discovery of genetic basis of heredity by Gregor Mendel 1860
Fleming discovers chromation, i. e. chromosomes 1879
The first cancer causing virus is discovered by Rous. 1911
Microbes are used to treat sewage for the first time in Manchester, England. 1914
Development of fermentations process for acetone and n-butanol by Chain Weizmann 1916
Discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming 1929
Discovery of streptomycin by Selman Waksman 1943
DNA is proven to carry genetic information. 1944
Elucidation of double helical structure of DNA by Francis Crick and James Walson 1953
Mechanism of DNA replication was studied in E.coli by Meseleson and Stahl 1958
Determination of genetic code by Nirenberg and Mathaei 1961
DNA transformation into E.coli 1970
Discovery of restriction enzymes 1971
Preparation of monoclonal antibodies by Cesar Milstein and George Kohler 1975
Sequencing of DNA by Sanger and Coulson 1975
Genetically engineered microorganisms can be patented(US Supreme Court) 1980
Development of Gene Bank 1982
Discovery of PCR 1985
Development of human genome project 1990
Complete sequencing of yeast genome 1996
Dolly (sheep), first cloned animal 1998
Maintenance of human stem cells in culture 1998
Human genome, the first mammalian genome sequenced 2001