Milestones of Biotechnology
History of Biotechnology
- In the late 19 century, many discoveries and developments were made to gene birth of molecular biology by biochemists, geneticists and cell biologists.
- The term biotechnology was described in a bulletin of the Bureau of Biotechnology published in 1920. The articles in this bulletin described the different roles of microbes in the leather industry, pest control and fermentations.
- The historical developments in biotechnology are summarized in Table Below. The concept of molecular biology, microbiology, and biotechnology has changed the scenario of pharmaceutical developments.
- The advancements in recombinant (rDNA) and monoclonal antibody technology have led to the development of new drug molecules. Products developed from the basis of genetic engineering are recombinant soluble CD4, tissue plasminogen, erythropoietin, colony-stimulating factors, etc.
- Different types of diagnostic kits are developed by using monoclonal antibodies.
- The most developing field in pharmaceutical biotechnology is the production of therapeutically active proteins and peptides.
- These drugs have been extensively utilized in replacement therapies where the patient is unable to produce the required protein (e.g. insulin).
- Many drugs and vaccines are developed by using basic concepts of biotechnology. Genomics, pharmacogenomics, proteomics, gene therapy, gene cloning, and tissue engineering are the present focus of biotechnology
Milestones of Biotechnology
|Pasteur proposes that microbes that cause fermentation||1857|
|Discovery of the genetic basis of heredity by Gregor Mendel||1860|
|Fleming discovers chromatin, i. e. chromosomes||1879|
|The first cancer-causing virus is discovered by Rous.||1911|
|Microbes are used to treat sewage for the first time in Manchester, England.||1914|
|Development of fermentation process for acetone and n-butanol by Chain Weizmann||1916|
|Discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming||1929|
|Discovery of streptomycin by Selman Waksman||1943|
|DNA is proven to carry genetic information.||1944|
|Elucidation of the double-helical structure of DNA by Francis Crick and James Walson||1953|
|Mechanism of DNA replication was studied in E.coli by Meseleson and Stahl||1958|
|Determination of genetic code by Nirenberg and Matthaei||1961|
|DNA transformation into E.coli||1970|
|Discovery of restriction enzymes||1971|
|Preparation of monoclonal antibodies by Cesar Milstein and George Kohler||1975|
|Sequencing of DNA by Sanger and Coulson||1975|
|Genetically engineered microorganisms can be patented(US Supreme Court)||1980|
|Development of Gene Bank||1982|
|Discovery of PCR||1985|
|Development of human genome project||1990|
|Complete sequencing of the yeast genome||1996|
|Dolly (sheep), the first cloned animal||1998|
|Maintenance of human stem cells in culture||1998|
|The human genome, the first mammalian genome sequenced||2001|