Submandibular & Sublingual Gland
In the submandibular area or the floor of the mouth, two of the three main salivary glands are located: the submandibular and sublingual glands.On the side of the face and in the temporomandibular space, the third largest salivary gland, the parotid gland, is found. In the submandibular triangle, much of the submandibular gland is situated superficially, with only a small part reaching through the mouth floor. However, the entire sublingual gland is embedded in the floor of the mouth.
- Within the submandibular triangle, the submandibular gland occupies most of the space. Superficially, the deep cervical fascia is covered by blood, platysma, and the superficial layer.
- Under the mask of the mandible in the submandibular fossa, the superior extent of the gland is recessed. The gland spreads inferiorly to the hyoid bone, bordering the digastric muscle’s intermediate tendon.
- The gland stretches anterior to the digastric muscle’s anterior belly and posterior to the stylomandibular ligament. Hyoglossus, stylohyoid, styloglossus, and mylohyoid muscles lie on the deep surface of the gland.
- A fingerlike projection normally reaches into the sublingual space on the mylohyoid muscle’s superior surface.
- The submandibular duct (the Wharton duct) arises from this deep process to travel anteriorly between the muscles of mylohyoid, hyoglossus, and genioglossus, then between the last-named muscle and the sublingual gland, just laterally to the base of the lingual frenulum, to open into the sublingual caruncula.
- The facial artery vascularizes the submandibular gland while the artery travels on its way to the superficial face through the posterior part of the gland.
- The artery just anterior to the masseter muscle ascends over the lateral boundary of the mandible. Further blood supply to the gland is also provided by the sublingual branch of the lingual artery. The named arterial channels are accompanied by venous drainage.
- The sublingual gland, the smallest of the three main salivary glands, is situated at the bottom of the mouth between the superior sublingual fold (oral cavity mucous membrane) and the inferior mylohyoid muscle.
- Between the medial genioglossus muscle and the lateral sublingual fossa of the mandible lies this almond-shaped gland. It is in contact with the submandibular gland at a later stage.
- As tiny excretory ducts (ducts of Rivinus) on the surface of the plica sublingualis located in the sublingual sulcus, ducts from the sublingual gland may open into the oral cavity.
- To form the sublingual duct (duct of Bartholin), those ducts may join, opening into the submandibular duct.
- Two sources originate the blood supply to this gland: the sublingual artery from the lingual artery and the submental artery, a branch of the facial artery.