Types of plant tissue culture

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Types of plant tissue culture

  • Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plants cell, tissues or organs under the sterilized condition on a nutrient culture of known composition.
  • Plant tissue culture is widely used to produce clones of a plant in a method known as micropropagation.

Choice of explant

  • The tissue obtained from a plant to be cultured is called an explant and may include a portion of shoots, leaves, stems, flower, roots and single undifferentiated cells.
  • The most commonly used tissue explant is the meristematic and ends of the plants like the same keep auxiliary root tip.
  • These tissues have high rates of cells division and either concentrate or produce required growth-regulating substances including auxins and cytokinins.

Basic tissue culture techniques

Contents:

  • Media
  • Freezing cell
  • Counting
  • Planting
  • Growth techniques
  • Maintainance / lack of culture
  • Expansion
  • Antibiotics

Tissue culture techniques:

  • Sterilization techniques:
  • Sterilization is a procedure used for elimination of microorganism.
  • The maintenance of SST for sterile conditions in essential for successful tissue culture procedure.
  • In general, different sterilization procedure can be grouped under three categories.
  1. preparation of sterile media, container and small instrument.
  2. maintenance of the aseptic condition.
  3. preparation of sterilized explant material.

Steam sterilization

  • Most nutrient media are sterilized by using an autoclave.
  • The standard condition for autoclaving media is 121 degree Celsius with the pressure of 15 PSI.
  • In autoclave has a temperature range of 115 to 135 degree Celsius standard temperature is 121 degree Celsius.

Autoclaving

  • Culture vessels are generally sterilized by hitting in an autoclave or pressure cooker to 121 degree Celsius at 15 PSI for 15 to 40 minutes.

Dry heat sterilization

  • The sterilization of instruments glassware and pipettes can be carried out in dry heat for 3 hours at 160 degrees to 180 degrees.

Filter sterilization

  • Some growth factors, vitamins and toxin are heat liable and get destroyed during autoclaving.
  • Search chemicals are therefore sterilized by filtration.
  • For longer volumes filter sterilization can be carried out using a vacuum filtering setup.

Ultraviolet sterilization:

  • Sterilization of nutrient media by irradiation.
  • It is very expensive.

Alcohol sterilization:

  • Commonly used 70% ethanol.
  • Used in and sterilization laminar airflow sterilization.

Chemical sterilization

  • Plant material can lie surface sterilized by a variety of chemicals.
  • It is the eradication with the aid of chemicals.
  • Explants, after treated with sterilants, must be thoroughly rinsed with distilled water.

The various techniques of principles of plant tissue culture areas listed below:

Callus culture

  • The callus is a mass of highly vacuolated unorganised self resulting as a consequence of building in plants and in tissues culture with the use of sophisticated techniques.
  • Cell maybe from Poland Anthrax bird fruits leaf shoot Apex etc.
  • Embryoid develops into plantlets and letter in a whole viable plant.

Principles:

  • aseptic preparation of plant material.
  • selection of suitable growth medium
  • selection of suitable controlled physical growth conditions for incubation.

Types of plant tissue culture
A meristem is a group of an undifferentiated plant cell which can undergo division to form all types of tissues. Meristem culture

  • Generally explant used in the shiny dome-shaped structure of length which is less than 10 0.1 mm with one or two pairs of the youngest leaf.
  • Meristem tissue is isolated and activated on a sweet table growth medium under aseptic conditions.
  • Maritime forms callus at adds cut and on which a large number of shoot primordial develop.

Application of meristem culture:

  • Virus and parasite elimination
  • The resulting plantlets are often free of viruses and parasites.
  • Meristem is devoid of viruses those are certain reasons behind this.
  • Meristematic cells are actively dividing and have high metabolic activity.

Organ culture

  • In organ culture-specific organ is excised culture. On a suitable growth nutrient medium under aseptic and controlled physical concentration.
  • The particular organ treat and its characteristics structure and feature and continue to grow as usual unlike in callus culture.
  • It includes another culture pollen culture of embryo, ovary, root, shoot, floral, fruits seed etc.

Suspension culture:

  • Tissue and cell culture in a liquid medium produce a suspension of single-cell and cell of few too many cells these are called suspension culture.
  • Suspension culture grows much faster than callus culture need to be subcultured about every week also allow a more accurate determination of the nutritional requirement of cell and are the only system to scaling off for large scale production of cell and events somatic embryos.
  • The suspension culture is the group as like batch culture, continuous culture and immobilized cell culture.

Pollen and Anthrax culture:

  • Haploid plants may be obtained from pollen grains by placing another or isolated pollen grains on a sweet table culture medium this constituent another and pollen culture respectively.
  • Isolated pollen grains when cultured in vitro give rise to haploid or callus this approach is called pollen culture.

Protoplast culture:

  • The techniques for protoplast culture are pretty well defined and lightly effective for almost all the systems.
  • A number of strategies have been used to include fusion between protoplast of different strains and species.
  • The protoplast mixture is then subjected to high PH and high temperature.
  • This technique is quite suitable for some space ES file for some other it may be toxic.

Types of plant tissue culture