Types of plant tissue culture
- Plant tissue culture is a collection of techniques used to maintain or grow plants cell, tissues or organs under the sterilized condition on a nutrient culture of known composition.
- Plant tissue culture is widely used to produce clones of a plant in a method known as micropropagation.
Choice of explant
- The tissue obtained from a plant to be cultured is called an explant and may include a portion of shoots, leaves, stems, flower, roots and single undifferentiated cells.
- The most commonly used tissue explant is the meristematic and ends of the plants like the same keep auxiliary root tip.
- These tissues have high rates of cells division and either concentrate or produce required growth-regulating substances including auxins and cytokinins.
Basic tissue culture techniques
- Freezing cell
- Growth techniques
- Maintainance / lack of culture
Tissue culture techniques:
- Sterilization techniques:
- Sterilization is a procedure used for elimination of microorganism.
- The maintenance of SST for sterile conditions in essential for successful tissue culture procedure.
- In general, different sterilization procedure can be grouped under three categories.
- preparation of sterile media, container and small instrument.
- maintenance of the aseptic condition.
- preparation of sterilized explant material.
- Most nutrient media are sterilized by using an autoclave.
- The standard condition for autoclaving media is 121 degree Celsius with the pressure of 15 PSI.
- In autoclave has a temperature range of 115 to 135 degree Celsius standard temperature is 121 degree Celsius.
- Culture vessels are generally sterilized by hitting in an autoclave or pressure cooker to 121 degree Celsius at 15 PSI for 15 to 40 minutes.
Dry heat sterilization
- The sterilization of instruments glassware and pipettes can be carried out in dry heat for 3 hours at 160 degrees to 180 degrees.
- Some growth factors, vitamins and toxin are heat liable and get destroyed during autoclaving.
- Search chemicals are therefore sterilized by filtration.
- For longer volumes filter sterilization can be carried out using a vacuum filtering setup.
- Sterilization of nutrient media by irradiation.
- It is very expensive.
- Commonly used 70% ethanol.
- Used in and sterilization laminar airflow sterilization.
- Plant material can lie surface sterilized by a variety of chemicals.
- It is the eradication with the aid of chemicals.
- Explants, after treated with sterilants, must be thoroughly rinsed with distilled water.
The various techniques of principles of plant tissue culture areas listed below:
- The callus is a mass of highly vacuolated unorganised self resulting as a consequence of building in plants and in tissues culture with the use of sophisticated techniques.
- Cell maybe from Poland Anthrax bird fruits leaf shoot Apex etc.
- Embryoid develops into plantlets and letter in a whole viable plant.
- aseptic preparation of plant material.
- selection of suitable growth medium
- selection of suitable controlled physical growth conditions for incubation.
A meristem is a group of an undifferentiated plant cell which can undergo division to form all types of tissues. Meristem culture
- Generally explant used in the shiny dome-shaped structure of length which is less than 10 0.1 mm with one or two pairs of the youngest leaf.
- Meristem tissue is isolated and activated on a sweet table growth medium under aseptic conditions.
- Maritime forms callus at adds cut and on which a large number of shoot primordial develop.
Application of meristem culture:
- Virus and parasite elimination
- The resulting plantlets are often free of viruses and parasites.
- Meristem is devoid of viruses those are certain reasons behind this.
- Meristematic cells are actively dividing and have high metabolic activity.
- In organ culture-specific organ is excised culture. On a suitable growth nutrient medium under aseptic and controlled physical concentration.
- The particular organ treat and its characteristics structure and feature and continue to grow as usual unlike in callus culture.
- It includes another culture pollen culture of embryo, ovary, root, shoot, floral, fruits seed etc.
- Tissue and cell culture in a liquid medium produce a suspension of single-cell and cell of few too many cells these are called suspension culture.
- Suspension culture grows much faster than callus culture need to be subcultured about every week also allow a more accurate determination of the nutritional requirement of cell and are the only system to scaling off for large scale production of cell and events somatic embryos.
- The suspension culture is the group as like batch culture, continuous culture and immobilized cell culture.
Pollen and Anthrax culture:
- Haploid plants may be obtained from pollen grains by placing another or isolated pollen grains on a sweet table culture medium this constituent another and pollen culture respectively.
- Isolated pollen grains when cultured in vitro give rise to haploid or callus this approach is called pollen culture.
- The techniques for protoplast culture are pretty well defined and lightly effective for almost all the systems.
- A number of strategies have been used to include fusion between protoplast of different strains and species.
- The protoplast mixture is then subjected to high PH and high temperature.
- This technique is quite suitable for some space ES file for some other it may be toxic.