Next Generation Probiotics
- Probiotics’ are naturally occurring bacterial strains found in human gut, and are being added to food for their health-promoting effects.
- The gut has a rich and diverse microbial ecosystem whose activities can also influence the health of the host.
- Probiotics have also been used to treat a variety of mucosal surface infections, such as those of the gut and vagina, but the use of these has almost diminished after antibiotics.
- The probiotics help in the production of antimicrobial metabolites and nutriceuticals; immunomodulation; relief of constipation and prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea; metal detoxification; serum cholesterol and blood pressure reduction; prevention and alleviation of allergic diseases; management of atopic dermatitis; prevention of surgical wound infection and tooth decay; regression of tumours and reduction in carcinogen and mutagen production
These are mostly used as food supplements and are now administered orally and are also an alternative to various intestinal disorders.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have proved to be effective mucosal delivery vectors including Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus
LAB has been altered by traditional and genetic engineering methods to yield new varieties.
These LAB can be genetically modified to get the desired protein or peptide without disturbing their biological activity.
- Other than that other bacterial and yeast strains such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces are also used as probiotic strains
Genetically Modified Probiotics/ Next Generation Probiotics
- The probiotics are genetically modified in order to get the desired or required protein or peptide for the biological activity or to enhance metabolism.
- Genetic modification of bacteria can be done by DNA transformation, transduction or by the use of plasmids
The regular consumption of fermented dairy products such as yoghurt containing lactic acid bacteria is associated with enhanced health and longevity in many people
The bacterial strains Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus are considered as the most effective next-generation probiotic (NGP) and designer probiotics are also being recognized.
Probiotic strains with high potential and health benefits have been identified which include mainly from the genera Bacteroides, Akkermasia, Faecalibacterium and Eubacterium.
- Some of these strains have been recorded activating immune T cell immune response in vivo while some proposed IgA production
GMP in Food
- GMOs are produced from distant bacterial strains by introducing genes.
- For example, a heterologous catabolic glutamate dehydrogenase gene from Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus was introduced into L. lactis to produce a-ketoglutarate from glutamate which is an amino acid present at high levels in cheese
- Also L. lactis produce large amounts of L-alanine from pyruvate in a single step by alanine dehydrogenase. The carbon flux from pyruvate to alanine, the Bacillus sphaericus alanine
dehydrogenase gene (alaDH) was expressed in an L-lactate dehydrogenase-deficient lactococcal strain.