Cell Disruption: Physical and Chemical Methods

Introduction Microbes are protected from the outside environment by rigid cell wall. The cell wall may be extremely hard and the recovery of the...

Structure of Chromosomes: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic

Structure of Chromosomes: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic A chromosome is a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of...

Endospore: Structure, Components and Sporulation process

Structure of Endospore Spores are unicellular structures. They are highly resistant, dormant metabolically inactive resting structures formed in response to adverse environmental conditions such...

Plasmid: Definition, Types and Function

Plasmid: Joshua Lederberg, an American molecular researcher, coined the term plasmid in 1952 to describe “any extrachromosomal hereditary material.” A plasmid is a small...
Gas Vesicles

Cell Inclusions and Storage Granules

Cell Inclusions and Storage Granules Within the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells are several kinds of reserve deposits, known as inclusions. Cells may accumulate certain...
Bacterial Capsule

Bacterial capsule, its composition and function

Bacterial Capsule The bacterial capsule is a very large structure of many bacteria. It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope...

Riboswitches for control of gene expression

Protein repressors and corepressors are not the only way in which bacteria control gene transcription. In many eukaryotes), it turns out that the regulation...

Adenohypophysis

The adenohypophysis secretes six main hormones. They are all proteins; two of them, Growth Hormone and Prolactin, act directly on target organs whereas the...

Endocrine Glands

The pituitary (hypophysis) is formed from two embryonic sources. The adenohypophysis is derived from the oral ectodermof Rathke’s pouch and is regulated through a...

Mitochondria: Structure and Function

Mitochondria: Structure and Function Introduction Mitochondria are specialized structures that are unique to the animal, plant, and fungal cells. They serve as batteries, powering...