Flagella staining

Flagella Staining: Principle, Procedure and Example

Flagella Staining: Principle, Procedure and Example Introduction Flagella are delicate locomotory organelles attached to the surface of the bacterial cells. They are long, slender...
Procedure of Endospore Staining

Endospore Staining: Principle, Procedure, Results and Example

Endospore Staining: Principle, Procedure, Results and Example Introduction When vegetative cells of certain bacteria such as Bacillus spp. (aerobic, facultative anaerobic) and Clostridium spp....

Cell Wall Staining: Principle and Procedure

Cell Wall Staining: Principle and Procedure Cell wall is a rigid structure, the outer covering and is responsible for the bacterial cell shape. The...

Capsule Staining: Principle, Methods, Procedure and Examples

Capsule Staining: Principle, Methods, Procedure and Examples Some bacteria have a thin layer of polysaccharide capsule outside the cell wall. Capsule is synthesized in...

Acid Fast Staining: Principle, Procedure and Examples

Acid Fast Staining Some bacteria are surrounded by a membrane composed of fatty or waxy substances. Therefore, these organisms are not easily stained by...

Gram Staining: Principle, Theories, Procedure and Examples

Gram Staining Gram staining is important and widely used technique. It is used to differentiate two large groups of bacteria based on their different...

Classification of Diuretics

Classification of Diuretics Diuretics are the agents which increase the rate and volume of urine formation. These agents mainly act on nephrons and promotes...

Mitochondrial DNA: Structure, Replication and Gene organization

Mitochondrial DNA: Structure, Replication and Gene organization Mitochondria Mitochondria are found in the cytoplasm of all animal and plant cells. are the principal source...

Hexose monophosphate shunt

Introduction Hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP) or pentose phosphate pathway or phosphogluconate pathway is an alternative pathway to glucose oxidation. The enzymes of the HMP...
Antihypertensive Drugs

Classification of antihypertensive drugs

Classification of antihypertensive drugs Hypertension is the abnormal elevation in blood pressure. W.H.O has defined hypertension as a state in which systolic pressure is...