Deoxyribonucleic acid

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a double helix carrying genetic instructions for...

Mitochondrial DNA: Structure, Replication and Gene organization

Mitochondrial DNA: Structure, Replication and Gene organization Mitochondria Mitochondria are found in the cytoplasm of all animal and plant cells. are the principal source...

Spontaneous and Induced Mutation

Spontaneous and induced types of mutation Spontaneous mutations are the result of errors in natural biological processes, while induced mutations are due to agents...

Prenatal Diagnosis: Overview

Prenatal Diagnosis: Overview INTRODUCTION One of the most important threats for human’s health is the genetic diseases. Genetic disease is a disorder caused by...

Types of Mutations

Types of mutations Gene mutations are of two main types, base-pair substitutions or switches, and frameshift mutations. 1) Base pair substitutions Base pair substitutions...

Neuron Structure and Function

Overview The highly specialized nerve cells are the in-charge of transmitting both chemical and electrical information. In the human body, many different types of...

Chromosome Banding Pattern

Chromosome Banding Pattern HISTORY In 1912, Winiwater was a successful attempt to count the number of human chromosomes. He was proposed that human chromosomes...

DNA repair mechanisms

DNA repair mechanisms Definition DNA repair is a set of processes that a cell uses to detect and repair damage to the DNA molecules...

Ame’s Test, Replica plate technique and Fluctuation test

Ame’s Test, Replica plate technique and Fluctuation test Fluctuation test This test was devised by Luria and Delbruck (1943) for investigating the response of...

Genetic Code: Definition, General Properties and Characteristics

Genetic Code: Definition, General Properties, and Characteristics Definition The relationship between the sequence of nitrogen bases in DNA, RNA, and the sequence of amino...