Labeling of Probes- Overview

Probes are short section of DNA or RNA with an additional tagged or labeled chemical entity that are used to bind to its complimentary strand and thereby allows detection of …

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography A method for determining the arrangement of atoms within a crystal is X-ray crystallography. X-ray diffraction, a non-destructive technique, is based on this technique. When an X-ray beam …

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Protein Secretion Pathways

Protein Secretion Pathways Bacteria and eukaryotic cells have specialized systems for exporting certain proteins (secretory proteins) to the external environment. Generally, secretory proteins are required for acquiring nutrients, cell-to-cell communication, …

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Regulation| mRNA Transcription in Eukaryotes

Regulation| mRNA Transcription in Eukaryotes Most active eukaryotic cells transcribe a common (basal) set of structural genes that maintain routine (housekeeping) cellular functions. In some cells, specific structural genes are …

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Thermoregulation

Thermoconformers and Thermoregulators Most animals are thermoconformers (whose body temperature conforms to that of the surrounding environment) but some animals are thermoregulators, either behaviorally or physiologically. Body temperature in mammals …

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Temperature Relationships

Temperature relationship Definitions Animals are limited to fairly narrow temperature ranges (approximately –2°C to +50°C for internal temperatures which will sustain active metabolism). Most animals (including all aquatic invertebrates) have …

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Nitrogenous Excretion

Nitrogenous Excretion Nitrogenous excretion is the removal of nitrogenous waste substances of metabolism. Nitrogenous waste substances During protein catabolism (breakdown) amino acids are deaminated to form a keto-acid and ammonia. …

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Gas Transport In The Blood

Respiratory Pigments Oxygen is relatively insoluble in plasma (the liquid part of vertebrate blood): only 0.3 cm3 of oxygen per 100 cm3 plasma in mammals. Special chromoproteins known as respiratory …

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Chromosome structure mutations

Chromosome structure mutations divided into two parts one is structural and another one is numerical. The structural mutation

Chromosome structure mutations divided into two parts one is structural and another one is numerical. The structural mutation is divided into four types which is an insertion, deletion, inversion, translation. …

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Signal transduction and environmental sensing

Signal transduction and environmental sensing ▶Cellular response to environmental stimuli Single-celled organisms, such as Bacteria, can face enormous changes in their external environment over very short periods of time. If …

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